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Kodex Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi

408 Blatt (2 Blätter fehlen) — 410x460mm — T. Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥaf al-sharif: Umayyadenzeit (661-750); F. Déroche, Abbasid Tradition: 8. Jh. — Pergament — Istanbul, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi (seit 1811) — 001:001-005:002; 005:008-017:017; 017:033-114:006 — 18 (Folio 1 bis 6: 16-19; kurze Suren: 13-17) Zeilen

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nr. H.S. 44/32
Kūfī (C I)

Die Suren sind voneinander durch farbige Ornamentbänder getrennt, die die Zeile zwischen den Suren füllen. Dabei reicht die Schrift noch in das Band hinein. Auch an den Verstrennern haben wohl verschiedene Hände gearbeitet. Die Regel scheinen dabei kreisrunde Verstrenner zu sein, die durch Ellipsen in feiner schwarzer Tinte geschnitten werden (Typ: 3.1.1.A.I). Verstrenner mit floralen Motiven (Typ: 3.2.3.D.I) findet man von fol. 2 r bis 6 v (Q 2:72), die offensichtlich nachgearbeitet wurden. Im folgenden sind die Beobachtungen, die E. Ihsanoǧlu in dem Vorwort bzw. T. Altıkulaç in der Vorbemekung der von Altıkulaç herausgegebenen Edition dieses Kodex wiedergeben: "Judging from its illumination, the Topkapı Museum Muṣḥaf dates neither from the period when the Muṣḥafs of the Caliph ʿUthmān were written nor from the time when copies based on these Muṣḥāfs were written. Since Muṣḥafs of the early period took those attributed to the Caliph ʿUthmān as a model, they do not have elements of illumination. In the following period, geometric and floral motifs were used within the palmettes which separate the sūrats and the rosettes between the verses. There are bands separating the sūrats. Small ornamental circles seperate the verses. Each of them contains motifs in various colors. [...] These illuminations are similar to those in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and other Umayyad monuments. The dimensions and ornamental style of the Topkapi Muṣḥaf indicate that it belongs to the first group, namely the Muṣḥafs of the Umayyad period. The style of ornamentation of this Muṣḥaf ist quite similar to that of the Sana'a Muṣḥaf shown in Table 1 [...]" (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥāf al-Sharif (Preface), S. 11)  "An examination of the sūrat palmettes and the rosettes dividing the verses in the Topkapı Muṣḥaf shows that it contains some early examples of the Islamic art of ornamentation. These examples reflect influences of Byzantine art. These intersecting lines and old elements of ornamentaion were later replaced by decoartive motifs which were particularly. [...] the rosettes between the verses in the Topkapı Muṣḥaf are in the form of small circles of various sizes after each verse, akhmās (signs marking the end of each fifth verse) and aʿshār (signs markind the end of every tenth verse). These circles are filled with various geometric and floral illuminations. Most of these circles were drawn only with black ink, while some of them were drawn in various colors. They vary in size. Some are small while others are large (fols. 2a-6a). The size of the spaces between the verses varies as well. Therefore, the circles and motifs are sometimes small and sometimes large. However, the rosettes between the verses are generally drawn as small circle. Since the circumferences of the circles are drawn regularly, we undrestand that the rosettes were drawn with the aid of a template and later filled with various motifs of illumination in the form of geometric designs and the cloverleaf symbol (four small leaves). The influence of Byzantine art is clearly seen on these geometric motifs. It appears that in later periods the artist tried to eliminate the effect of the cross sign by the intressting staight lines. In other places one sees the influence of intersecting lines and other influences of the pre-Islamic period. A different group of rosettes separating the verses is seen on some folios (2a-6a, 11a-b). These groups of signs in the form of interspersed and intersecting circles and semi-circles were drawn by hand in balck and red ink. These circles are seen only on the above-mentioned pages. As stated above, the script of this page differs from the script of the other pages. Thus, it appears that missing or damaged pages were later replaced by new ones. This Muṣḥaf is also characterized by the fact that it contains rosettes in the form of big circles after every 5 or 10 verses, rectangular shaped signs after every 100 verses and signs of similar shape following every two hundred verses in Sūrat al-Baqara, al-Shuʿarāʾ and Āl ʿ-Imrān. These rosettes are illuminated in a color different from the other signs. Most of the rectanglular signs contain the word one hundred (مئه) and in the above three mentioned surats one sees the word two hundred (مئتين) after every two hundredth verse in Sūrat Āl ʿImrān since it coincides with the end of the sūrat. There are wide horizontal bands in the form of rectangles between the sūrats. Sometimes the corners of these rectangles are decorated with rays in the form of a semi-circle which contains trangles and quadrangles of different sizes and colors, namely red, blue, yellow, and black, and the palmettes separating the sūrats do not have an exact shape. It appears clearly that the person who ornamented this Muṣḥaf filled in the spaces between the sūrats with various ornamental elements randomly according to his taste. Most of the time, the illuminator used curved lines in the motifs for fear of covering the letters. The last two sūarts at the end of the Muṣḥaf are written in circles closed on both sides by two parallel lines in red ink. There are traces of illumination outside of these circles as well. Apparantly, these illuminations were affected by the passage of time."  (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharif (Preface), S. 11f)  "Although there are a few signs which were apparently placed later (see for example, folios 210a, line 6), it seems impossible to think that vowel signs, dots and similar kinds of signs may have been added to the Muṣḥaf later. Particularly after examining these signs and the ornamental drawings of various kinds between the sūrats, it is seen that enough space has been left for them during the copying of the Muṣḥaf; in other words, it becomes clear that these signs and designs were placed during the copying of the muṣḥaf.” (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharif, S. 79)

Der Grundtext in schwarzer Tinte ist mit einer dicken Linie geschrieben, wie es in abbasidischer Zeit üblich wurde. Im Vergleich zu späteren Koranhandschriften im Kūfī-Duktus ist die Schrift jedoch von einer bemerkenswerten Schlichtheit: Die Linienführung des Schreibers ist in aller Regel gut erkennbar. Die Hasten der Oberlängen (alif, lām), die senkrecht zur Grundlinie stehen, sind kürzer als in den älteren Manuskripten und bleiben in der eigenen Zeile.  Auf Grund der dicken Linie und der angesprochenen Schlichtheit lässt sich die Handschrift der C-Gruppe (der Typologie nach F. Déroche) zuordnen. Diese zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass (1) die Buchstaben mīm und hāʾ nicht unter die Grundlinie greifen und (2) das nūn einer Klammer (etwa ], aber leicht abgerundete Ecken) ähnelt, welche nach links geöffnet ist. Das späte B II, das dem noch ziemlich nahekommt, greift bei der Schreibung des Buchstaben hāʾ deutlich unter die Grundlinie - was in der vorliegenden Handschrift erkennbar nicht der Fall ist. Spätere Stile (D, E, F) kommen auf Grund Schriftgröße, Zeilenanzahl und Raumaufteilung überhaupt nicht in Frage. Innerhalb der C-Gruppe kommt dem Istanbuler Kodex dann der Subduktus C I am nächsten, dessen andere Vertreter etwa ins 8. Jahrhundert zu datieren sind (vgl. dazu die Beispiele in Déroche: Abbasid, S. 36). Zur paläographischen Beschreibung vgl. E. İhsanoǧlu: "An examination of the Topkapı Muṣḥaf shows that it was written with a developed kufic script. The shape of the letters does not confirm to the writing style of the early Muṣḥafs attributed to Caliph ʿUthmān, which were written on vellum in his period and therefore known as the Muṣḥafs of Caliph ʿUthmān. [...] Apparantly this Method of Abū al-Aswad al-Duʾalī [invented after the death of Caliph ʿUthmān] was carefully followed in placing the vowel marks of the Topkapı Palace copy. Single dots were placed in red ink above, beside or below the letters." (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥāf al-Sharif (Preface), S. 9). Zur Differenzierung der Homographen dienen auf und unter den Buchstaben dünne Striche, die offenbar mit einem anderen Stift als der Grundtext geschrieben wurden. Für die Vokalisierung wurden rote Punkte verwendet. Es waren also mindestens drei Schreibgeräte bei der Herstellung des Textes beteiligt. Diese Beobachtung wird durch Korrekturen im Text unterstützt: zu Beginn von Q 5:53 wurde zwischen dem Vertrenner und dem ersten Wort nachträglich ein wāw eingefügt (fol. 71 v, Zeile 15). Die Handschrift wird dem Kalifen Osman zugeschrieben, vgl. dazu: "According to the evaluation of Munadjdjid, neither this Muṣḥaf nor the Muṣḥafs located in Tashkent, al-Mashhad al-Ḥusayn in Cairo and in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Works in Istanbul were the Muṣḥafs attributed to Caliph ʿUthmān; however considering the differences in their script, the centuries when they were copied and their different dimensions, they must have been copied from the Muṣḥafs attributed to Caliph ʿUthmān. For this reason, each of them was called the (Muṣḥaf ʿUthmān)" (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharif, S. 80). - Altıkulaç dokumentiert einige Stellen, die seiner Meinung nach fehlerhaft zu sein erscheinen: "The Muṣḥaf contains a small number of mistakes which may be attributed to the scribes. - The word كلو, which was written as the last word in folio 5a in Sūrat al-Baqara (2/57), was repeated as the first word of folio 5b;  - the word اذا in Sūrat al-Anʿām (6/152) was spelled as اذ.; - the word ولا was written as وولا in Sūrat al-Aʿrāf. (7/192); - the word انى اخاف in Sūrat al-Anfāl (8/48)was spelled with two alifs as اني ااخاف.; - the word صديد was spelled as صدد in Sūrat Ibrāhīm (14/16); - the word لا in the phrase اولاالالبب in Sūrat al-Zumar (39/18) was dropped; - the alif at the end of the word اعدا in Sūrat Fuṣṣilat (41/19) was forgotten; - the phrase يااولى was written as يالاولى and the phrase لانتم was written as لاانتم in Sūrat al-Ḥashr (59/2,13)." (Altıkulaç, al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharif, S. 75)

Tayyar Altıkulaç (Hrsg.): al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharif Attributed to ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān (The copy at the Topkapı Palace Museum), Istanbul 2007.
Ignaz Goldziher, Die Richungen der islamischen Koranauslegung, Leiden 1920, S. 274, Fn. 3.
Gustav Jahn, Commentar zu Zamachśarî's Mufaṣṣal. nach den Handschriften zu Leipzig, Oxford, Constantinopel und Cairo. Ibn Jaʾîš. Hrsg. und mit Reg. und Erl. versehen von Gustav Jahn. Bd. I, Leipzig 1882, S. 15.
Salāḥ ad-Dīn al-Munaǧǧid, Dirāsāt fī tārīḫ al-ḫatt al-ʿarabī munḏu bidāyatihī ilā nihāyat al-ʿaṣr al-umawī, Beirut 1972, S. 55.

M.M., .J.S., .T.J.J.